Haplotype

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A haplotype is a term in genetics. It is short for haploid genotype. A haplotype is a collection of specific alleles (particular DNA sequences) in a cluster of tightly-linked genes on a chromosome. A cluster is usually inherited together.[1] Put simply, haplotype is a closely-knit group of genes which a child inherits from one parent.[2]

A second meaning of the term haplotype is a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) usually found together on a single chromatid (of a chromosome pair). So, finding a few alleles of a haplotype sequence identifies all other sites in its region. Such information is very valuable for investigating the genetics of common diseases.[3][4]

Comparing haplotypes of two or more people shows the degree of genetic relationship between their respective lines. It is done in genetic genealogy projects.[5]

References[change | change source]

  1. Kimball's Biology Pages (Creative Commons Attribution 3.0)
  2. SciTable: haplotype / haplotypes [1]
  3. The International HapMap Consortium (2003). "The International HapMap Project". Nature 426 (6968): 789–796. doi:10.1038/nature02168. PMID 14685227. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v426/n6968/pdf/nature02168.pdf.
  4. The International HapMap Consortium (2005). "A haplotype map of the human genome". Nature 437 (7063): 1299–1320. doi:10.1038/nature04226. PMC 1880871. PMID 16255080. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v437/n7063/pdf/nature04226.pdf.
  5. Haplotype versus haplogroup — the difference between haplogroup & haplotype explained.